Nutrition science resources to help stay abreast with early life nutrition research

Prebiotics & Probiotics

EXPERT CONSENSUS DOCUMENT: THE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION FOR PROBIOTICS AND PREBIOTICS (ISAPP) CONSENSUS STATEMENT ON THE DEFINITION AND SCOPE OF PREBIOTICS

Gibson et al. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;14(8):491-502

Abstract: An international panel of experts in microbiology, nutrition and  clinical research gathered to review the definition and scope of prebiotics, to engender appropriate use of the term ‘prebiotic’ so that consistency and clarity may be achieved in research reports, product marketing and regulatory oversight of the category. Consistent with the original embodiment of prebiotics, but aware of the latest scientific and clinical developments, the panel updated the definition of a prebiotic: a substrate that is selectively utilised by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit.This definition expands the concept of prebiotics to possibly include non-carbohydrate substances and applications to body sites other than the gastrointestinal tract. Beneficial health effects must be documented for a substance to be considered a prebiotic.

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WORLD GASTROENTEROLOGY ORGANISATION GLOBAL GUIDELINES PROBIOTICS AND PREBIOTICS

Guarner F, et al. World Gastroenterology Organisation (2017)

Abstract: Over a century ago, Russian scientist and Nobel laureate, Elie Metchnikoff postulated that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) offered health benefits capable of promoting longevity. He suggested that replacing proteolytic microbes, which produce toxic substances including phenols, indoles, and ammonia from the digestion of proteins, with useful microbes offered health benefits. Henry Tissier (of the Pasteur Institute) isolated a Bifidobacterium from a breast-fed infant with the goal of administering it to infants suffering from diarrhoea. Today, accumulated evidence supports the view that benefits are measurable across many different outcomes. The prebiotic concept is more recent, with the key aspect being that prebiotics are not digestible by the host and that they lead to health benefits for the individual through a positive influence on native beneficial microbes. Prebiotic or Probiotic administration is intended to influence the gut environment, which is dominated by trillions of commensal microbes, for the benefit of human health, with beneficial effects extending beyond the gut. However, this guideline paper focuses on gut effects.

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Pregnancy Care

UPDATED CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES ON PREGNANCY CARE

Homer CSE, et al. Med J Aust. 2018;209 (9):409-412

Abstract: The clinical practice guidelines on pregnancy care have been developed to provide reliable and standardised guidance for health professionals providing antenatal care in Australia. They were originally released as the Clinical Practice Guidelines: Antenatal Care in two separate editions (modules 1 and 2) in 2012 and 2014. These modules have now been combined and updated to form a single set of consolidated guidelines that were publicly released in February 2018 as the Clinical Practice Guidelines: Pregnancy Care. Eleven topics have been updated and new guidance on substance use in pregnancy has been added.

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MANAGEMENT OF OBESITY IN PREGNANCY

The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

This position statement provides advice to GPs on the management of obesity during pregnancy. This statement was first developed by the Women’s Health Committee (RANZCOG) in 2013 and reviewed in 2017.

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LACTAMAP ONLINE LACTATION CARE SUPPORT EDUCATION FOR HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS

LactaMap is a free breastfeeding education resource for healthcare professionals, created by The University of Western Australia. LactaMap is intended for doctors to utilise within their professional practice to provide lactation support for mothers and their term infants from birth to 2 years of age. It aims to break down complicated guidelines to make it easier for HCPs to quickly find relevant information on breastfeeding and give evidence-based advice.

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PREVENTION OF CONGENITAL CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV) INFECTION

The Royal Australian College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG)recommendations for the prevention of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection.  The objective is to provide guidance for maternity and community care providers on the prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy, in order to reduce mother to child transmission (MTCT) of virus, foetal infection and clinical sequelae (symptomatic congenital CMV); and to provide a general overview of the diagnosis and management of congenital CMV.

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Food and Nutrition During Early Childhood

There is good evidence to show improved diet quality in children when mothers eat certain foods and have foods readily available and accessible (i.e. already cut up). Similarly, improved diet quality also results when young children eat with peers who show liking for a range of foods. Research has also shown that a child is more likely to accept new foods when they are rested and not overly hungry (i.e. parents should understand not to expect too much when children are tired and hungry).